Rootstocks | Descriptions, Sizes and Other Information


‘Bud’ (B) series, short for Budagovsky, introduced from Byelorussian Experiment station, Michurinsk, Russia. is a cold hardy  zone 4/5 russian rootstock series.

Bud 9 (B9) is a dwarfing stock that produces a tree about 10 to 12 feet tall, needs support, produces at a younger age, is shorter lived and has some resistance to fire blight and collar rot.

Bud 118 (B118) is a semi-standard stock that needs no support, grows to about 80 percent of standard or around 18 to 20 feet tall. cold hardy and produces fruit in approximately 3-4 years.

EMLA (M)series is from East Malling research station, East Malling, England. Widely used, well known in the fruit industry and dependable rootstocks.

EMLA 26 (M26) semi-dwarf produces a tree about 45% of standard or about 12 to 14 feet tall. requires support, produces early, good cold hardiness. susceptible to fire blight and collar rot.

EMLA 7 (M7) semi-standard produces a tree about 16 feet tall, good resistance to fire blight and collar rot. Adapts well to a wide range of soil types. support is recommended. Known to tolerate ‘replant disease’. Has tendancy to sucker.

EMLA 111 (M111) semi-standard produces tree about 18 to 20 feet tall here in the northeast, shorter in some warmer growing zones. Does not require support, resistant to collar rot and wooly apple aphid.

Geneva (G) Series, from a joint Cornell University and USDA program. A rootstock breeding program with an emphasis on productivity, yield efficiency, ease of nursery propagation, fire blight resistance, tolerance to extreme temperatures, resistance to soil pathogens of the sub-temperate regions of the US, and tolerance to apple replant disorder.

Geneva 41 (G41) High resistance to wooly apple aphid and fire blight. Dwarfing to about 25-30% of standard. Needs support.

Geneva 202 (G202) Resistant to collar rot, fire blight, and wooly apple aphid. Dwarfing to about 35-45% of standard.

Geneva 935 (G935) Resistant to collar rot and fire blight. Has demonstrated more cold hardiness than other M9 clones. Dwarfing to 30-35% of standard. Support is recommended.

Geneva 30 (G30) Resistant to collar rot and fire blight. Dwarfing to 40-50% of standard. Good anchorage and precocity (bears fruit early in growth).


Pyrus Old Home x Farmingdale (OHxF) are pear rootstocks selected from seedlings grown in Illinois for their vigor, precocity, disease resistance and cold hardiness.

OHxF 333 Resistant to fire blight. Should be planted in permanent location within the first few years due to deep anchorage trait. Dwarfing to 61-70% of standard.

OHxF 87 Resistant to fire blight. Hardy down to Zone 4 (USDA). Very promising for high density plantings. Dwarfing to 60% of standard.

OHxF 97 Resistant to fire blight. Hardy down to Zone 4 (USDA). Proven to be more productive then Bartlett rootstock. Standard sized tree.

Pyrus betulifolia Immune to pear decline and resistant to fire blight. Exceptional vigor; recommended for marginal land. Adapts well to difficult soil conditions, making a standard sized tree. Choice root for Asian pears. Used with Asian varieties, produces a tree 15-20′ tall. Used on European pears, it makes a huge tree of 30′ or more. Has produced very well in our Zone 5a, can be grown in Zone 4.

Pyrus ussuriensis Extra cold hardy rootstock, grows well down to Zone 3 (USDA). Full sized tree, 40-50′. Has been known to grow in Alaska, Zone 2 (USDA).


Myrobalan 29-C (myro29c) Prunus cersifera Resistant to armillaria root rot (oak root fungus) and nematodes. Adaptable to varied soil types. Vigorous rootstock for prunes and plums. Trees will be near standard size. Hardy to Zone 4 (USDA).

Prunus Americana (American Plum, Wild Plum) Native Eastern plum. Rootstock for American or hybrid plums. Does well on thin soil. Hardy to Zone 3 (USDA).