‘Bud’ (B) series, short for Budagovsky, introduced from Byelorussian Experiment station, Michurinsk, Russia. is a cold hardy  zone 4/5 russian rootstock series.

Bud 9 (B9) is a dwarfing stock that produces a tree about 10 to 12 feet tall, needs support, produces at a younger age, is shorter lived and has some resistance to fire blight and collar rot. 25-30% of full size.

Bud 118 (B118) is a semi-standard stock that needs no support, grows to about 80 percent of standard or around 18 to 20 feet tall. cold hardy and produces fruit in approximately 3-4 years. Susceptible to Phytophthora. x

EMLA (M)series is from East Malling research station, East Malling, England. Widely used, well known in the fruit industry and dependable rootstocks.

EMLA 106 (M106)  Produces large caliper, well-branched trees about 65% of full size. Well anchored, does not require staking. Sensitive to soil moisture and must have well-drained soil or it is likely to have collar rot. Susceptible to mildew, early winter freeze damage and union necrosis (tomato ring spot virus). Recommended spacing of 14 feet. If you’re Zone 4 or warmer, this one will handle some co-planting.

EMLA 26 (M26) semi-dwarf produces a tree about 45% of standard or about 12 to 14 feet tall. requires support, produces early, good cold hardiness. susceptible to fire blight and collar rot. x

EMLA 7 (M7) semi-standard produces a tree about 16 feet tall, good resistance to fire blight and collar rot. Adapts well to a wide range of soil types. support is recommended. Known to tolerate ‘replant disease’. Has tendancy to sucker. 55-60% of full-size. x

EMLA 111 (M111) semi-standard produces tree about 18 to 20 feet tall here in the northeast, shorter in some warmer growing zones. Does not require support, resistant to collar rot and wooly apple aphid. 75% off full size. x

Geneva (G) Series, from a joint Cornell University and USDA program. A rootstock breeding program with an emphasis on productivity, yield efficiency, ease of nursery propagation, fire blight resistance, tolerance to extreme temperatures, resistance to soil pathogens of the sub-temperate regions of the US, and tolerance to apple replant disorder. Geneva series can be susceptible to brittle graft unions and roots.

Geneva 30 (G30) grows to 45-50% of standard. Resistant to fire blight. Produces quickly. Must stake. x

Geneva 41 (G41) High resistance to wooly apple aphid and fire blight. Dwarfing to about 25-30% of standard. Needs support.

Geneva 202 (G202) Resistant to collar rot, fire blight, and wooly apple aphid. Dwarfing to about 35-45% of standard. x

Geneva 935 (G935) Resistant to collar rot and fire blight. Has demonstrated more cold hardiness than other M9 clones. Dwarfing to 30-35% of standard. Support is recommended.x

Antonovka, the standard rootstock, provides a good option for those in the coldest of winter areas or to grow a long-lived, large tree. In cold areas, the trees will be smaller. Full size without pruning equals 25 to 35 feet.

Height will range depending on zone, soil and whether you are East or West of the Mississippi and the spacing between trees.

  • Colder = smaller
  • Poor soil = smaller
  • East of Mississippi = smaller
  • The closer the trees, the smaller they get


Pyrus Old Home x Farmingdale (OHxF) are pear rootstocks selected from seedlings grown in Illinois for their vigor, precocity, disease resistance and cold hardiness.

OHxF 333 Resistant to fire blight. Should be planted in permanent location within the first few years due to deep anchorage trait. Dwarfing to 61-70% of standard.

OHxF 87 Resistant to fire blight. Hardy down to Zone 4 (USDA). Very promising for high density plantings. Dwarfing to 60% of standard.

OHxF 97 Resistant to fire blight. Hardy down to Zone 4 (USDA). Proven to be more productive then Bartlett rootstock. Standard sized tree.

Pyrus betulifolia Immune to pear decline and resistant to fire blight. Exceptional vigor; recommended for marginal land. Adapts well to difficult soil conditions, making a standard sized tree. Choice root for Asian pears. Used with Asian varieties, produces a tree 15-20′ tall. Used on European pears, it makes a huge tree of 30′ or more. Has produced very well in our Zone 5a, can be grown in Zone 4.

Pyrus ussuriensis Extra cold hardy rootstock, grows well down to Zone 3 (USDA). Full sized tree, 40-50′. Has been known to grow in Alaska, Zone 2 (USDA).


Myrobalan 29-C (myro29c) Prunus cersifera Resistant to armillaria root rot (oak root fungus) and nematodes. Adaptable to varied soil types. Vigorous rootstock for prunes and plums. Trees will be near standard size. Hardy to Zone 4 (USDA).

Prunus Americana (American Plum, Wild Plum) Native Eastern plum. Rootstock for American or hybrid plums. Does well on thin soil. Hardy to Zone 3 (USDA).

Mustang is a complex Prunus hybrid with demonstrated potential for wide use. Minimal suckering, good anchoring, certified virus free, cold hardy for Zones 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.

Mariana 2624 Moderate vigor rootstock used for growing ornamental and fruiting plums. Compatible with most cultivars and resistant to Tomato Ringspot virus. Resistant to root knot nematode. Produces a more uniform tree size than seedling rootstock. Has a tendency to root sucker. Zone 4

Plum Rootstock Grid
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Krymsk 86 Peach/Plum hybrid. Tree size is about 80% of full size. tolerant to wet and heavy soils. Cold hardy and high pH tolerance. Precocious (bears early), increases fruit size, increases yield. Strong root system. Hardy to Zone 4 (USDA). Highly recommend using crab shell with this rootstock to promote healthy nematode growth.

Seedling rootstock/Lovell Dependable, standard rootstock. Compatible with all Prunus species. Good anchorage, good disease resistance. In most instances a longer life. More tolerant than most to wet soils. Good cold tolerance. Not resistant to nematodes in sandy soils.

Peach Rootstock Size Grid-3


*Sizing percentages refer to a full-sized tree on a seedling rootstock of approximately 30 to 50 feet.

*More than any other fruit we’ve encountered, cherries are highly dependent upon localized climate, site, soils, cultivar-rootstock combinations.

Gisela 5 Tree size 45% of standard. Precocious (produces early) and productive. Moderate anchoring ability, does best with support. Adaptable to all soil types.

Gisela 6 Semi-dwarf that produces a tree 60-70% of standard. Adapts to a wide range of soil conditions, does well in heavy soil. Although it was sold to grows as being bacterial canker resistant, new studies (our own as well) have found that it can be susceptible to it which is a huge issue on the East Coast. May need support.

(we are going away from the Gisela series for the support and bacterial canker issues)

Krymsk 5  is a semi-dwarf rootstock that is tolerant of heavy, clay soils. Resistance to bacterial canker is showing as good. Resists drought and cold winters. Is about 70-80% of standard. 

Mahaleb a standard rootstock for sour cherries. Slightly dwarfing for sweet cherries. Works best on light, sandy soils. Zone 4 hardy. Resists crown gall, bacterial canker and some nematodes.

Mazzard from a wild cherry seedling, best suited for trees planted on heavier soiils. Considered the full size standard tree. Very well anchored. Resistant to rootknot nematodes and oak root fungus.